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The Classification and Use of Aluminum

  1. Classification of aluminum

 (1) According to the presence or absence of alloy composition, aluminum is divided into pure aluminum and aluminum alloy. Aluminum alloys are divided into Al-Mn alloys, Al-Cu alloys, Al-Si alloys and Al-Mg alloys according to alloy series.


(2) According to the pressure processing capacity, it can be divided into deformed aluminum and non-deformed aluminum (for example: cast aluminum).


(3) According to whether heat treatment can be strengthened, aluminum alloys are divided into non-heat treatment strengthened aluminum and heat treatment strengthened aluminum. Aluminum has no isomers, and pure aluminum, aluminum-manganese alloys, aluminum-magnesium alloys, etc. cannot be improved by heat treatment to improve strength. However, alloys such as aluminum-copper and aluminum-magnesium-silicon can increase the strength by solidifying the precipitation strengthening phase, which is called heat-treatable aluminum. It is called non-heat-treatable strengthened aluminum that can't increase the strength by precipitation strengthening phase through solution aging.

Aluminum alloy is divided into:

Series 1: Features: 99.00% or more aluminum, good conductivity, good corrosion resistance, good welding performance, low strength, and can not be strengthened by heat treatment. Application: high purity aluminum (more than 99.9% aluminum) is mainly used in science Testing, chemical industry and special uses.

Series 2: Features: Aluminum alloy containing copper as the main element. Manganese, magnesium, lead and bismuth are also added for machinability For example: 2011 alloy, we must pay attention to safety protection during the smelting process (will produce harmful gases). 2014 alloy used in the aviation industry, high strength. The 2017 alloy has a lower strength than the 2014 alloy, but it is easier to process. 2014 can be heat-treated and strengthened. Disadvantages: The tendency of intergranular corrosion is serious. Scope of application: aviation industry (2014 alloy), screw (2011 alloy) and industries with higher temperature (2017 alloy).


Series 3: Features: Aluminum alloys with manganese as the main alloying element, which cannot be strengthened by heat treatment, have good corrosion resistance and good welding performance. Good plasticity. (Close to super aluminum alloy). Disadvantages: low strength, but can be strengthened by cold work hardening. It is easy to produce coarse grains during annealing. Scope of application: Oil-guiding seamless tubes (3003 alloy) and easy-to-open cans (3004 alloy) used on airplanes.

Series 4: mainly silicon, not commonly used. Some 4 series alloys can be strengthened by heat treatment, but some 4 series alloys cannot be heat treated.

Series 5: Features: Mainly based on magnesium. Good endurance performance, good welding performance, good fatigue strength, can not be strengthened by heat treatment, only cold processing to improve strength. Applications: handles for lawn mowers, ducts for aircraft fuel tanks, body armor.

Series 6: Features: Mainly magnesium and silicon. Mg2Si is the main strengthening phase and is currently the most widely used alloy. 6063, 6061 are the most used, and other 6082, 6160, 6125, 6262, 6060, 6005, 6463 are used. The strength of 6063, 6060, 6463 is relatively low in 6 series. 6262, 6005, 6082, 6061 have higher strength in 6 series. Features: Medium strength, good corrosion resistance, good welding performance, good process performance (easy to extrude), good oxidation and coloring performance. Scope of application: energy transfer tools (such as: car luggage racks, doors, windows, car bodies, heat sinks, compartment shells)

 Series 7: Features: mainly zinc, but sometimes a small amount of magnesium and copper are added. The super-hard aluminum alloy contains zinc, lead, magnesium and copper alloys close to the hardness of the steel. The extrusion speed is slower than the 6 series alloy, and the welding performance is good.


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